"TEMPI DIFFICILI" PER ISTRUZIONE E SCUOLA PUBBLICA

Pubblicato il 27/08/2017

3 Commenti



di Gianni Vacchelli


La scuola pubblica vive un periodo complesso e altamente problematico. Anzi, parafrasando il grande Charles Dickens, che nel suo romanzo Hard Times (1854) fece una violenta e attualissima critica dell’utilitarismo in educazione, siamo veramente in “tempi difficili”. Eppure tutto sembra avvenire in un quasi assordante silenzio, e con ben poche, isolate, contestazioni. La riforma della Buona Scuola – di cui il 7 aprile sono stati approvati otto decreti legislativi - è la punta e l’apice di un processo pluridecennale (almeno a partire dalla Riforma Berlinguer), che rischia di svuotare sempre più di senso la pratica educativa e che mette in pericolo i fondamenti stessi della scuola pubblica. Certo la scuola pubblica va ripensata e riformata, ma non destrutturata e sottoposta ad un processo aziendalizzante, di cui va smascherata la natura ideologica, di marca economicistica ed efficientista.

Le attuali politiche dell’istruzione rientrano dentro la «crisi mondiale dell’istruzione» (Nussbaum, Giroux, Amoroso). Si tratta insomma di collocare in una “cornice” più ampia quello che sta succedendo in Italia e che è già successo altrove (per es. negli USE). Come denuncia la filosofa americana M. Nussbaum, nel suo libro Non per profitto. Perché le democrazie hanno bisogno della cultura umanistica: «sono in corso radicali cambiamenti riguardo a ciò che le società democratiche insegnano ai loro giovani, e su tali cambiamenti non si riflette abbastanza. Le nazioni sono sempre più attratte dall’idea del profitto; esse e i loro sistemi scolastici stanno accantonando, in maniera del tutto scriteriata, quei saperi che sono indispensabili a mantenere viva la democrazia».

Non bisogna poi dimenticare che la parola “riforma” è un termine tecnico tipico della neolingua del pensiero neoliberista vigente, che significa invece “destrutturazione”, ridimensionamento in base al dominante pensiero-potere unico. Per capire dunque la “questione-scuola” oggi è necessario tenere conto del contesto più generale di crisi antropologica e di ”finanzcapitalismo” assolutizzato nel quale stiamo vivendo.

Ecco allora che abbiamo sì bisogno di trasformare la scuola, di ripensarla radicalmente, ma in modo diametralmente opposto all’appiattimento che sta avvenendo oggi. Bisogna invece aprire varchi di pensiero critico e dare ad esso sempre più spazio nella pratica didattica, come nell’impianto generale della scuola stessa. Non è certo un caso che la dimensione critica sia pressoché assente nei documenti della Buona Scuola, a cominciare dall’inquietante Piano per la formazione triennale degli insegnanti*. È quanto mai necessario dunque “rimettere al centro” la questione della scuola. Come? In tre modi almeno: a) parlandone e molto, in una informazione consapevole che spieghi in modo critico i processi in corso; b) ricostituendo un fronte comune di insegnanti, studenti, genitori (e società civile tutta); e, soprattutto, c) riprendendo una lotta cosciente e resistente in difesa della scuola, per una sua trasformazione reale e creativa.


Pubblicato da La Redazione

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